war machines

Today I am going to talk about military inventions. What are some of these things? Well one thing is artillery. Artillery guns are big and some are small. They both have the same function. A mortar is a small artillery gun. Their impact on war is great. Without these guns war would be longer. They helped by destroying tanks, clearing bunkers, and shot down war planes .

Another invention is the tank. This heavy armored mobile artillery doesn’t always have a gun though. Some have their guns taken off so they can transport troops and supplies. Some famous tank names are the Sherman, Tiger, and T 34. It had the largest influence in war and used in almost every battle. They were almost the exact same as artillery. The difference was you could stick anything to it such as a flamethrower. They could clear bunkers, destroy other tanks, shoot down planes, provide cover, and transport supplies and troops. Nothing this mobile and this powerful had ever been used in wars before the tank was invented.

My favorite invention used by the military is a war plane. Here are a few I know about. The Spitfire, Corsair, and P51 Mustang are planes that have flown in different wars. These mainly influenced the Pacific war of WWII because that part of the world is mainly water. They helped by shooting down planes, bombing enemy targets, and transporting supplies and soldiers. Thank you for reading and I will talk to you soon.

Cyclical vs. Linear

Hello everyone. Today as said in the title I am going to talk about linear vs cyclical views of life. So let’s talk about cyclical. First you’re going to have to know what cyclical means. It means cycle. That said lets give an example. Lets say a tree drops a seed. Over time it grows into another tree that also has seeds to drop. This cycle goes on and on. Now that you have a good idea of what it means, let’s dive in. People who believe that time is cyclical believe that is has no end and that time began out of the waters of chaos. This idea was developed in ancient Egypt. Out of the waters of chaos rose a mountain called Benben that the gods then turned into the Earth. To make sure that the world didn’t fall back into chaos, the Egyptians appointed a Pharaoh. The Pharaoh was said to be a link between the two worlds. He maintained order through giving commands to the people so that the world would not be destroyed by chaos.

   The linear view of time states that time has a beginning, a middle, and an end. A person is born, becomes a child, grows into an adult, then dies. This is linear. There really is not much about it.

A person with a cyclical view of life may think that growing their personal capital is useless . With the rise of chaos comes the destruction of there items of personal value That is what they think . Thank you for reading and if want someone else opinion come here. Bye.

The arquebus

The arquebus was a gun made in 1685. It was the predecessor of the musket rifle. The first type of the arquebus was called the hand cannon. The hand cannon was loaded with gun powder down the barrel of the gun which was very dangerous. The arquebus then started to advance so that way it could be loaded on the side of the rifle instead of down the barrel. the weapon was not ideal for combat at long range because it was not that powerful but it was made bigger to store more gunpowder. One of the main benefits of the arquebus is that it is easier to train a huge army than with just bows that took longer to train people.

My favourite way to study

My favorite way to study is reading and watching videos. I also like to take notes with my favorite pen and pencil. If I hear something I think is important, then into the notebook it goes. I do this so that way for essays and assignments I have something I can easily write{unlike this essay}. So yeah that is my favorite way to study.

Plate Armor and the English Longbow

      The longbow was a powerful weapon that stood almost 6 feet tall and it took 145 lb of force to pull it back. The farthest back you would pull is to your face or chest.  The longbow was used in the hundreds years war between France and England. Its most famous battles were Sluys(1340)  the battle of Crecy(1346)  and the battle of Poitiers (1356) though the battle of Agincourt(1415) may be its most famous battle.

    Now on to plate armor. Before plate armor was invented chainmail armor was used. At the time chain mail armor was invincible to all but a few weapons. The few weapons it can’t hold of is the longbow, the battle hammer  and spear. The thin weapons such as the spear  and bow arrows could go threw the chain and the hammer could break bones on impact. The plate armor was made to counter these effects. The only weapon that could damage it was the crossbow. After years of use it began to go out of use because of the gun until they were used no more.

Robert Grosseteste

Robert Grosseteste was a smart man born in 1175 in the town of Suffolk. He was a clerk and a book writer. He was also a Christian and the bishop of Lincoln and was to be revered as a saint but never was. He is well known for his outspoken criticism of the Roman Catholic Churches involvement in politics. He was a english statesmen, a scholastic philosopher, and a theologian. He received his education at oxford where he learned law, medicine, and the natural science. His learning is highly praised by a anther historian named Roger Bacon. Bacon said that he knew little greek or hebrew and hardly paid attention to Aristotle’s works. Robert is best known as an original thinker for his work concerning what we call science. Then in 1253 Robert Grosseteste died.

The ribed vault and the wine press

     The first invention we are going to talk about is the wine press. The wine press had many forms and names. An earlier version is the vat. A vat was like a huge bowl that people climbed in and walked all over the grapes. The problem with the vat is that after crushing the grapes carbon dioxide came out of the the grapes and pushed the oxygen out of the vat and so people suffocated. Then they invented the wine press. The wine press is two halfs of a barrel  stuck together. Then a large screw put in the barrel. Then two half moons were put on. The person then starts screwing and all the juice is squezed out by the pressure. The Romans made tons of wine presses but never used them because making them was expensive and like I said before they had a massive slave population so they didn’t need them. But other nations used them just the same.

   The ribed vault was a invention used by many people. They were designed to hold up the roof of very tall buildings. The ribed vault ,as you can guess, looks like a rib cage. The ribed vault allowed higher windows to talk be placed for more natural ight to come in. The ribed vault was invented in Rome and Greece. The ribed vault was a great invention.

These two inventions both had massive impacts on history.

The creation of stained glass.

      The Roman Empire had perfected glass making. They were able to make glass thin and clear so it didn’t have much practical use but to let in light. The reason they could make such perfect glass was because they had access to Natron. Natron was a sandy mineral, which was collected in Egypt. But after the Roman Empire fell glass making fell out of use because people had to learn to survive and farm. The further you got from the capital of Rome, the less people knew how to make glass.
After what was left of Rome learned  to farm and fend for themselves,they  remebered how nice it was with glass. So they started to recycle old Roman glass. But after a while they ran out and if you run out what do you do if you have broken window. And they didnt have the tools we have to help repair there glass. So the had to find something else. There were two problems, though. 1 that they had forgot how to make glass and 2 they ran out of Natron. So they began to experiment with plant ash. Then forest glass was born. Forest glass had impuritys like

Four smart people from India

     Al Kindi was a smart and honorable man. He made over 200 books full of knowledge. But the most famous thing about him is that he learned to decipher frequency. Frequency is a form of coded messages. The way these messages work is by using the most commonly used letters and words. He was born between 320bc and 337bc. He lived in a small village just outside of Baghdad. Later he joined the House of Wisdom in Baghdad as a scholar. He became very smart and advanced to the top of his class. He later became a teacher and tought the next generation.

     Al Khwarizmi was known as the father of algebra. He was a great mathematician and taught his students well. The name algebra comes the word al jaber which he wrote in one of his books. 

    Al Razi was a doctor. He was the first person to find the difference between smallpox and measles.His surgery methods were amazing. He wrote different books on medicine and how to take care of almost every single decease at home.

Now finally, Al Hazen. Al Hazen was a person who studied how eyes see. At the time there were two theorys on how eyes see. They are emission and transmission. He was more of a transmission kinda guy. The emission theory was that the object made light and showed the whole object. Transmission said that multiple light rays showed the part of the object you are looking at. 

Remember this. 

Al Kindi deciphered frequency, algebra crowned Khwarizmi,and Al Razi had amazing surgery ,that leaves Al Hasan the optical rasin.

The Sword

       The sword was a interesting invention. It helped change the way battles were fought and won. The earliest swords were made out of bronze and tin. Over the years they progressed into the iron age and made stronger and longer swords. The parts of a sword are the blade, the hilt and the sheath. The sheath is the thing that the sword is put in. The sheath is made of tough leather and has a metal casing on  both sides. The hilt is the part where you hold the sword. The cross guard is the top part of the hilt. It is made to help keep your hand from sliding onto the blade and cuting yourself. The middle part is where you hold the sword. It is made of metal but has a leather wrapping to keep your hand from slipping off. The last part of the hilt is the bottom part or the pomel as it is called. There are two main uses for the pomel. My favorite use of the pomel is to slam people on the head and knock them out. The pomel is so big and heavy that it is perfect for hitting people on the head. The second use is to help you not accidentally throw the sword. Now the final part of the sword is the blade. The blade is the most important part of the sword. Of course you know what a blade is but I am still going to talk about it. The blade usually has one sharp side but can have two. The blade has a small  trench in the middle which makes it lighter and easier to swing. There are three main types of swords, the cutlass, the double edge sword, and the dagger. The cutlass was a curved blade that only had one edge. The dagger was a short version of the double edge sword but could also have only one edge. The thing I like the most about swords is that they introduced a new way of fighting. I also love how fictional weapons such as the lightsaber draw their design and use from the ancient sword. 

 A Small but helpful invention 

        Without this small, helpful invention we probably wouldn’t have the world we have now. Its called the stirrup. This invention was important to the shaping of our world. The stirrup was first invented in India as a simple toe loop for your big toe. Before the stirrup or the toe loop, people used chariots instead. Then some one realized that the chariot was slower than horse back riding. If you are not heavy cavalry then speed is a huge advantage, so people stoped using chariots and  started riding horse back. At first it was just archers and spear men who rode on horses.The reason for this was that they were more light weight than all the other types of soldiers and didn’t need much support.The infantry had heavier gear and armor, and the current toe loop system wouldn’t work because they were so heavy. This problem needed to be solved. So the stirrup was invented but they only used one . This was just a mounting aid. They later added a second one for better support. This allowed the invention of the heavy cavalry  

The stirrups impact on history was very significant. It changed the ways battles and  wars were fought and won.

Halo 

         When I first down loaded halo the master chief collection onto my Xbox I was scared to actually try and play it. So I made it my goal to try it out and when I did I loved it. I didn’t really play it that much so my mom and dad tried it out. Surprisingly they were really good at it but it took them at least 40minutes to complete level one. The game i I liked the most was halo 1. It began on this spaceship called the Pillar of Autumn. When I woke up from stacis my drill instructer told me to aim and after I finished that I was told to move around the room. But after I finished basic training the Covanant attacked me and my fellow Marines. The Covenant  is a variety of aliens such as the high jumping jackles, the annoying grunts, and the muscular elites. After I finished the level I desided that the game was great.